Wing Chun

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Wing Chun
Ip Man and Bruce Lee practicing "双黐手" (Seung Chi Sau), meaning "double sticky hands"
Also known asVing Tsun, Wing Tsun, Wing Tsung, Yong Chun, Weng Chun, Wyng Tjun, Ving Tjun, Wing Tzun, Wing Tschun
FocusStriking, grappling, trapping
Country of originFoshan, China
CreatorUnknown, as there are eight distinct lineages with different stories regarding its conception.[1][2][page needed]
For further information, see Branches of Wing Chun
Famous practitioners(see notable practitioners)
ParenthoodShaolin Kung Fu / Nanquan[2][page needed]
Descendant artsJeet Kune Do,[3] German Jujutsu[a][4]
Wing Chun
Traditional Chinese詠春
Simplified Chinese咏春
Literal meaning"singing spring"[5][6]

Wing Chun (Cantonese) or Yongchun (Mandarin) (Chinese: 詠春 or 咏春, lit. "singing spring")[7] is a concept-based martial art, a form of Southern Chinese kung fu, and a close-quarters system of self-defense. It is a martial arts style characterized by its focus on close-quarters hand-to-hand combat, rapid-fire punches, and straightforward efficiency. It has a philosophy that emphasizes capturing and sticking to an opponent's centerline. This is accomplished using simultaneous attack and defense, tactile sensitivity, and using an opponent's force against them.

Wing Chun has various spellings in the West, but "Wing Chun" is the most common.[8][full citation needed][9][additional citation(s) needed] The origins of Wing Chun are uncertain, but it is generally attributed to the development of Southern Chinese martial arts. There are at least eight distinct lineages, of which the Ip Man and Yuen Kay-shan lineages are the most prolific.

The martial art was brought to Hong Kong and then the rest of the world by Ip Man, with Bruce Lee being his most famous student. The Ving Tsun Athletic Association, founded in 1967 by Ip Man and his students, helped spread Wing Chun globally. Traditionally taught within a family system, modern Wing Chun lessons have taken on a more academic and commercial character.

Wing Chun gained popularity in the 2010s due to the Ip Man film series starring Donnie Yen and has been featured in video games like Tekken 7. Notable practitioners include Ip Man himself, Bruce Lee, and Donnie Yen.

Etymology[edit]

In Chinese, this martial art is referred to as 咏春拳 (simplified script) or 詠春拳 (traditional script). Though it is written in an almost identical way in traditional and simplified, it is not pronounced and transcribed in the same way according to the regions and their dialects: Yǒngchūn quán in Mandarin pinyin, Wing-Chun keen in Cantonese Wade-Giles. It is made up of 2 terms: (quan/kuen) which means "fist, boxing" and the term 詠春 (wing-chun, in Cantonese) meaning "singing spring". The full name is thus translated as "singing spring boxing".[5][6]

In its short designation, the martial art is simply designated by these two sinograms:

  • the sinogram yǒng/wing: "to sing, to sing..."
  • the sinogram chūn/chun: "spring, vitality..."

This martial art is sometimes referred to by 永春, characters different from 詠春, but pronounced and transcribed in the same way: They are literally translated as "eternal spring", the character meaning "eternal, endless". These characters also designate the Yongchun region near the city of Quanzhou (Fujian).

If the use of 詠春 seems privileged today for Wing Chun styles, 永春 still appears in the name of other Southern Chinese martial arts (with 永春 often transcribed Weng Chun); for example jee shim weng chun and Yǒng Chūn Bái Hè Quán (永春白鶴拳).[10][additional citation(s) needed]

Romanization[edit]

In the West, the name of this martial art has been transcribed variably due to the use of different or personal Chinese language romanization methods, and differences in pronunciation between Chinese languages (but Cantonese was often preferred) or according to Western languages. In addition, some Wing Chun masters voluntarily created their own terms, in order to dissociate their personal teaching from traditional teachings. For example, Yip Man's Ving Tsun or Leung Ting's Wing Tsun.

The consequence is the ability to determine a lineage, a student-teacher family tree, just by spelling.

— Wayne Belonoha[11][full citation needed]

Finally, this martial art is pronounced quite identically in the West but is written with many spellings: Ving Tsun, Wing Tsun, Wing Tsung, Yong Chun, Weng Chun, Wyng Tjun, Ving Tjun, Wing Tzun, Wing Tschun. Wing Chun is the most common form, used to apply to all lineages of this martial art.[12][full citation needed][9][additional citation(s) needed]

Context[edit]

Context of the name Wing Chun varies between various branches of Wing Chun. Common legend is that the name is derived from Yim Wing-chun, the mythical progenator of the martial art, who was a student of the legendary Abbess Ng Mui.[13][14][15]

According to the Hung Suen / Hung Gu Biu lineage, the Ng Mui / Yim Wing Chun legend was conceived to protect the identity of Cheung Ng, a Shaolin monk who survived the Manchurian massacres and took refuge at Red Boat Opera. The "Yim Wing Chun" name was chosen for specific reasons, as Yim could be understood as the word for "Secret" or "Protected", and "Wing Chun" refers to Siu Lam Wing Chun Tong (the Always Spring Hall). With "Yim Wing Chun" being a secret code for "the secret art of Siu Lam Wing Chun Hall."[16]

In the Pan Nam lineage, the "Wing" in Wing Chun comes from Chan Wing-wah, one of the founders of Hongmen.[17] According to the Pao Fa Lien lineage, the name Wing Chun is a shortened form of the revolutionary motto, "Wing yun chi jee; Mo mong Hon Juk; Dai dei wu chun." A secret code that allowed the anti-Qing revolutionaries to recognize each other. Eventually, the codeword was shortened to Wing Chun (Always Spring.)[18]

Origins[edit]

The definitive origin of Wing Chun remains unknown and is attributed to the development of Southern Chinese martial arts.[19] Complications in the history and documentation of Wing Chun are attributed to the art being passed from teacher to student orally, rather than in writing. Another reason is the secrecy of its development, due to its connections to Anti-Qing rebellious movements.[20]

There are at least eight different distinct lineages of Wing Chun, each having its own history of origin. Additionally, there are competing genealogies within the same branch or about the same individual teacher. The eight distinct lineages of Wing Chun which have been identified are:

Regardless of the origins espoused by various Wing Chun branches and lineages, there is much third-party controversy and speculative theorizing regarding the true origins of Wing Chun. In the West, Wing Chun's history has become a mix of fact and fiction due to the impacts of early secrecy and modern marketing.[1]

Wing Chun at present[edit]

Of the eight Wing Chun lineages,[32] the Ip Man and Yuen Kay-shan lineages are the most prolific branches of Wing Chun worldwide.[33][34][35] The other lineages are pretty much unknown outside of China, except for the Pan Nam line, which survives in the USA[36][37] and the Jee Shim / Weng Chun line with a strong presence in Germany.[38][39] The Yuen Chai Wan form of Wing Chun[b] has a notable presence in Vietnam, with this lineage having earned the moniker of "Vietnamese Wing Chun".[40][41][42][43][44]

In 1949 Ip Man, considered the most important grandmaster of modern Wing Chun, brought the style from China to Hong Kong and eventually to the rest of the world.[21][45][46][47] Yip Man's most famous student was Bruce Lee, who had studied under Yip Man before he moved to the United States.[c][49] Lee is also credited for popularizing Wing Chun internationally,[50][51] although he would later develop his own martial arts philosophies (namely Jeet Kune Do) that contain many Wing Chun influences.[3][52] Some masters changed the way of teaching only 1 loyal student because it was a tradition that came because of Qing dynasty's influence and destruction of Southern Shaolin, in order to preserve the style, ancient masters taught only 1 loyal student.

The Ving Tsun Athletic Association[edit]

The Ving Tsun Athletic Association was founded in 1967 by Cantonese master Ip Man and seven of his senior students so they could teach Wing Chun together and Ip Man would not take on all the work himself.[53] The first public demonstration of the Wing Chun fighting system, according to Ip Man, took place in Hong Kong at an official exhibition fight in the winter of 1969 at what was then the Baptist College (now the Hong Kong Baptist University). Leung Ting, a student of Ip Man, invited his master and some well-known representatives of the martial arts scene of the time to the college and conducted the exhibition fights in front of a specialist audience. The Association helped Wing Chun to spread to the rest of the world.[54][55]

Organizational structure in modern Europe[edit]

There is no uniform umbrella organization in Europe under which Wing Chun practitioners are grouped, but rather numerous, sometimes competing and divided associations, schools, and individual teachers. Most associations do not appear in the legal form of associations that have voluntarily merged to form an association, but as commercial organizations in which associated schools are integrated, which are authorized and certified by the association. Some of the associations are organized in a franchise system.

In some associations, based on the family system that was used in the past, obedience and obligations towards the master and his teacher are emphasized, although these are rarely directly related to their training students.

Characteristics[edit]

General[edit]

Wing Chun puts emphasis on economic movement and encourages its practitioners to "feel" through their opponents' defenses and to utilize the incoming attacks with deflection, rapid punches, and finger pokes. Slapping and defensive maneuvers are used to distract the opponent to make them shift their defenses away from their centerline.[15]

Wing Chun favors a relatively high, narrow stance with the elbows close to the body. Within the stance, arms are generally positioned across the vital points of the centerline with hands in a vertical "wu sau" ("protecting hand" position).[56] This puts the practitioner in a position to make readily placed blocks and fast-moving blows to vital striking points down the center of the body, i.e. the neck, chest, belly, and groin. Shifting or turning within a stance is done on the heels, balls, or middle (K1 or Kidney point 1) of the foot, depending on the lineage. Some Wing Chun styles discourage the use of high kicks because this risks counter-attacks to the groin. The practice of "settling" one's opponent to brace them more effectively against the ground helps one deliver as much force as possible.[57][58]

Relaxation[edit]

Softness (via relaxation) and performance of techniques in a relaxed manner, and by training the physical, mental, breathing, energy, and force in a relaxed manner to develop Chi "soft wholesome force",[59] is fundamental to Wing Chun.[15] On "softness" in Wing Chun, Ip Man said during an interview:

Wing Chun is in some sense a "soft" school of martial arts. However, if one equates that word as weak or without strength, then they are dead wrong. Chi Sau in Wing Chun is to maintain one's flexibility and softness, all the while keeping in the strength to fight back, much like the flexible nature of bamboo".[60]

Teaching structure in the past[edit]

In ancient China, Wing Chun, like all other martial arts or craft guilds, was traditionally passed on in a familiar way, from master to student. The master, who had personal responsibility for the entire training of the student (apprentice), was addressed as Sifu (master). The lessons often took place in the master's house, where a personal bond would develop between the master and his family and the student (apprentice), with certain mutual obligations. The first public martial arts schools were established in Hong Kong. Since then, Wing Chun's lessons have taken on a more modern, academic, and commercial character.

In some schools, however, the family system was still maintained. Lo Man-Kam, a nephew of Ip Man, still teaches his students in his home in Taipei. Suitable selected long-term students are still accepted into the inner circle of the Wing Chun family by the Sifu in the traditional way, through a master-student tea ceremony. This ceremony underlines the deep personal bond that has developed between master and student through the long training period.

Forms[edit]

Most common forms[edit]

Butterfly Swords

The most common system of forms in Wing Chun consists of three empty hand forms, two weapon forms: the Dragon pole and Butterfly swords, and a wooden dummy form.[61]

Empty hand[edit]

Siu nim tau[edit]

The first and most important form in Wing Chun, siu nim tau (simplified Chinese: 小念头; traditional Chinese: 小念頭; pinyin: xiǎo niàn tou; Jyutping: siu2 nim6 tau4; lit. 'little idea for beginning'[63]), is practiced throughout the practitioner's lifetime.[64] It is the foundation or "seed" of the art, on which all succeeding forms and techniques are based.[65] Fundamental rules of balance and body structure are developed here. Using a car analogy; for some branches this would provide the chassis[66] and for others, this is the engine.[67] It serves as the basic alphabet of the system. Some branches view the symmetrical stance as the fundamental fighting stance, while others see it as a training stance used in developing technique.[68]

Although many of the movements are similar, siu nim tau varies significantly between the different branches of Wing Chun. In Ip Man's Wing Chun, the first section of the form is done by training the basic power for the hand techniques by tensing and relaxing the arms.[69] In Moy Yat's Wing Chun, the first section of the form is done without muscle tension and slowly in a meditative, calm, and being "in the moment" way.[64] In 1972, weeks before he died, Ip Man demonstrated Siu Nim Tau (also known as Siu Lim Tau) on film, showing how the form is to be performed.[70]

Chum kiu[edit]

The second form, chum kiu simplified Chinese: 寻桥; traditional Chinese: 尋橋; pinyin: xún qiáo; Jyutping: cham4 kiu4; lit. 'seeking the bridge', focuses on coordinated movement of body mass and entry techniques to "bridge the gap" between practitioner and opponent, and move in to disrupt their structure and balance.[71][72] Close-range attacks using the elbows and knees are also developed here. It also teaches methods of recovering position and centerline when in a compromised position where Siu Nim Tau structure has been lost. For some branches, bodyweight in striking is a central theme, either from pivoting (rotational) or stepping (translational). Likewise, for some branches, this form provides the engine to the car. For branches that use the "sinking bridge" interpretation, the form has more emphasis on "uprooting", adding multi-dimensional movement and spiraling to the already developed engine.

Biu jee[edit]

The third and last form, biu jee Chinese: 镖指; pinyin: biāo zhǐ; Jyutping: biu1 ji2; lit. 'darting fingers', is composed of extreme short-range and extreme long-range techniques, low kicks and sweeps, and "emergency techniques" to counter-attack when structure and centerline have been seriously compromised, such as when the practitioner is seriously injured.[73], As well as the pivoting and stepping developed in Chum Kiu, a third degree of freedom, involves more upper body, and stretching is developed for more power. Such movements include close-range elbow strikes and finger thrusts to the throat. For some branches, this is the turbo-charger of the car; for others, it can be seen as a "pit stop" kit that should never come into play, recovering your "engine" when it has been lost. Still, other branches view this form as imparting deadly "killing" and maiming techniques that should never be used without good reason. A common Wing Chun saying is, "Biu jee doesn't go out the door". Some interpret this to mean the form should be kept secret; others interpret it as meaning it should never be used if you can help it.

Wooden dummy[edit]

Mu ren zhuang (simplified Chinese: 木人桩; traditional Chinese: 木人樁; pinyin: mù rén zhuāng; Jyutping: muk6 yan4 jong1; lit. 'wooden dummy') is performed on a wooden dummy, which serves as a training tool to teach the student the use of Wing Chun Kuen's 108 movements against a live opponent.[15] There are many versions of this form which come from a variety of Wing Chun Kung Fu lineages.[citation needed]

Other forms[edit]

San Sik (Chinese: 散式; Cantonese Yale: Sáan Sīk; pinyin: Sǎn Shì; 'Separate forms'), along with the other three forms, is the basis of all Wing Chun techniques. They are compact in structure, and can be loosely grouped into three broad categories: (1) Focus on building body structure through basic punching, standing, turning, and stepping drills; (2) Fundamental arm cycles and changes, firmly ingraining the cardinal tools for interception and adaptation; (3) Sensitivity training and combination techniques.[74]

Weapons[edit]

The Yuen Kay Shan / Sum Nung branch also historically trained to throw darts (Biu).[citation needed]

In film and popular culture[edit]

Donnie Yen played the role of Wing Chun Grandmaster Ip Man in the 2008 movie Ip Man, and in its sequels Ip Man 2, Ip Man 3, and Ip Man 4.[75][76] The Ip Man series of movies is credited for reviving interest in the martial art in the 2010s and the Ip Man trilogy received critical acclaim in the box office. Ip Man was Bruce Lee's master, which made the trilogy so popular. Lee was largely responsible for launching the "kung fu craze" of the 1970s.[77][78][79][80][81][82]

For the 2008 American action thriller film Bangkok Dangerous, actor Nicolas Cage trained in Wing Chun extensively. A particular scene in the film shows Cage’s skills whilst drilling moves with another Wing Chun practitioner (played by Thai actor Shahkrit Yamnam).[83]

In December 2019, a new Wing Chun fighter named Leroy Smith was introduced to the fighting game Tekken 7 roster as downloadable content.[84][85][86] When creating characters to represent real-world martial arts, the developers wanted to introduce a new fighter utilizing Wing Chun. The developers consulted a student of Ip Man's nephew, who provided motion capture for the character.[87]

Notable practitioners[edit]

Some notable practitioners of Wing Chun are Ip Man and his sons Ip Chun and Ip Ching, Master Wong Shun-leung, Chu Shong Tin, Lee Shing, Ho Kam Ming, CJ SP, martial artist actor Bruce Lee, Jackie Chan, Sammo Hung, Donnie Yen.[88][89]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Chu, Robert; Ritchie, Rene; Wu, Y. (2015). The Definitive Guide to Wing Chun's History and Tradition. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4629-1753-2.
  • Leung, Ting (2000). Roots and Branches of Wing Tsun, Second edition (January 1, 2000). Leung Ting Co ,Hong Kong. ISBN 962-7284-23-8.
  • Benjamin N. Judkins & Jon Nielson (2015). The Creation of Wing Chun: A Social History of the Southern Chinese Martial Arts. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-1438456959.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Wing Chun techniques were added to the German Jujutsu curriculum in 2000. Prior to that, German Jujutsu did not contain Wing Chun techniques.
  2. ^ Chu, Ritchie and Wu consider this a derivative of his brother's, Yuen Kay-shan's Wing Chun. With Leung Ting also seeing this as a niche system.
  3. ^ Lee was mainly taught Wing Chun by Wong Shun-leung, a senior student of Ip Man.[48]

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Wing Chun at Wikimedia Commons

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Chu, Ritchie & Wu 2015, pp. 1–2
  2. ^ a b Benjamin N. Judkins & Jon Nielson 2015
  3. ^ a b Chris Crudelli (2008). The Way of the Warrior. Dorling Kindersley Ltd. p. 316. ISBN 978-14-0533-750-2.
  4. ^ Braun, Christian (2004). Ju-Jutsu - Effektives Training. Das Prüfungsprogramm vom Gelb- und Orangegurt. Aachen, Germany: Meyer & Meyer Verlag. ISBN 3-89899-011-7.
  5. ^ a b Semyon, Neskorodev (2016). Mantis fist in Wing Chun. p. 4. The origin... One of them states, that this style was created by five masters of Southern Shaolin, who made this work in the Hall of Praising Spring. Other legend says, that the style was elaborated by the women Wing Chun (Singing Spring), the daughter of novice of Southern Shaolin[self-published source]
  6. ^ a b Womack, Mari (2003). Sport as Symbol: Images of the Athlete in Art, Literature and Song. McFarland & Company. p. 93. ISBN 9780786415793. village girl named Yim Wing Chun, which means to sing spring
  7. ^ See Etymology
  8. ^ « As the art grows in popularity, many different Romanizations for the Chinese character "Wing Chun" continue to be created, often as a result of the local dialect and pronunciation. This results in the ability to determine a lineage, student/teacher family tree, or origin, by the spelling alone. The most common spelling is "wing chun", which applies generally to all families. » - Wayne Belonoha, The Wing Chun Compendium, p.20
  9. ^ a b "Why traditional martial arts lose to hand-to-hand combat - US military hand-to-hand combat trainer who teaches Wing Chun sees it this way". sina.com.cn. (in Chinese). November 23, 2020. Archived from the original on May 14, 2021. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  10. ^ Use of 永春 by several branches, including Pan Nam himself, attested by Leung Ting in Roots and Branches of Wing Tsun and by the authors of Complete Wing Chun . See also http://weng-chun.com and http://www.yongchunbaihechuen.com
  11. ^ The Wing Chun compendium
  12. ^ « As the art grows in popularity, many different romanizations for the Chinese character "wing chun" continue to be created, often as a result of the local dialect and pronunciation. This results in the ability to determine a lineage, student/teacher family tree, or origin, by the spelling alone. The most common spelling is "wing chun", which applies generally to all families. » - Wayne Belonoha, The Wing Chun compendium, p.20
  13. ^ Chu, Ritchie & Wu 2015, pp. 4–27
  14. ^ Ritchie, R. (c. 2007): What's in a name? Retrieved on 9 May 2010.
  15. ^ a b c d Chris Crudelli (2008). The Way of the Warrior. Dorling Kindersley Ltd. p. 122. ISBN 978-14-0533-750-2.
  16. ^ Chu, Ritchie & Wu 2015, pp. 83–89
  17. ^ Chu, Ritchie & Wu 2015, pp. 69–77
  18. ^ Chu 2015, pg.78
  19. ^ Benjamin N. Judkins & Jon Nielson (2015). The Creation of Wing Chun: A Social History of the Southern Chinese Martial Arts. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-1438456959.
  20. ^ Chu 2015, pg. 1-2, 106-108
  21. ^ a b Chu, Ritchie & Wu 2015, pp. 4–27
  22. ^ Chu, Ritchie & Wu 2015, pp. 28–44
  23. ^ Leung Ting, pg.238
  24. ^ Chu, Ritchie & Wu 2015, pp. 45–52
  25. ^ Leung Ting, page 289 & 290
  26. ^ Chu, Ritchie & Wu 2015, pp. 53–68
  27. ^ Chu, Ritchie & Wu 2015, pp. 69–77
  28. ^ Chu, Ritchie & Wu 2015, pp. 78–82
  29. ^ Chu, Ritchie & Wu 2015, pp. 83–89
  30. ^ Chu, Ritchie & Wu 2015, pp. 90–99
  31. ^ Leung, Ting (2000). Roots and Branches of Wing Tsun, Second edition (January 1, 2000). Leung Ting Co ,Hong Kong. ISBN 9627284238, pg. 53, 90-99
  32. ^ see Origins
  33. ^ Leung Ting, Roots and Branches of Wing Tsun, ISBN 9627284239
  34. ^ David Peterson (2001). Look Beyond the Pointing Finger: The Combat Philosophy of Wong Shun Leung. Melbourne Chinese Martial Arts Club. ISBN 0957957009.
  35. ^ Jan P. Hintelmann (2005). Westliche Sinnfindung durch östliche Kampfkunst? (in German). IKO - Verlag für Interkulturelle Kommunikation. ISBN 978-3-88939-774-4.
  36. ^ Peyton, James (3 March 2016). "Pocket area Wing Chun school preserves rare martial arts tradition" (PDF). Pocket News (Print). Valley Community Newspapers. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  37. ^ Plum Staff (8 December 2009). "The Open Gate to the Garden of Chinese Martial Arts". plumpub.com. Plum Publications. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  38. ^ Andreas Hoffmann, Nadine Poerschke: Weng Chun Kung Fu. Budo International Publ. Co., Madrid 2011, ISBN 978-3-86836-183-4.
  39. ^ Chu 2015, page 94
  40. ^ Ritchie, Rene (31 March 2000). Yuen Kay-San Wing Chun Kuen (Paperback ed.). Action Pursuit Group. p. 142. ISBN 1892515032.
  41. ^ "Sư tổ võ Vịnh Xuân Việt Nam là "đại ca" Diệp Vấn". 24H. No. Online. Công ty Cổ phần Quảng cáo Trực tuyến 24H. 4 February 2016. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  42. ^ Nam, Khanh. "Những truyền kỳ về sư tổ phái Vịnh Xuân Việt Nam". Kien Thuc. No. Online. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  43. ^ "Vietnamese Wing Chun Master Nguyen Te Cong". Dan Saigon. No. Online. Dansaigon. 24 March 2019. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  44. ^ Mã, Tiểu (6 October 2016). "Bậc thầy võ Việt làm Diệp Vấn, Lý Tiểu Long phải phục". SOHA The Thao. No. Online. SOHA. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  45. ^ Rawcliffe, Shaun (2012). Wing Chun Kung Fu: The Wooden Dummy. Crowood. ISBN 9781847975072. Wing Chun Kung Fu has a long history but it has only been taught openly since the 1950s when Grandmaster Yip Man revealed the secrets of the art and began to teach large numbers of students in Hong Kong.
  46. ^ "Ip Man Tong virtual tour", foshanmuseum.com, November 2011, archived from the original on November 28, 2011
  47. ^ "An Interview with Grandmaster Yip Man". www.kwokwingchun.com. January 22, 2014. Archived from the original on October 29, 2019. Retrieved 2019-01-25.
  48. ^ "Who taught Bruce Lee kung fu? He was born to be a fighter, but the martial arts superstar also trained with the best". South China Morning Post. 25 July 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2023. Although Lee studied wing chun at Ip's school, he was mainly taught by Wong Shun-Leung, as Ip himself only taught advanced students, not beginners. Lee quickly became devoted to Wing Chun and practised diligently.
  49. ^ Complete Wing Chun: The Definitive Guide to Wing Chun's History and Traditions, Robert Chu, Rene Ritchie, Y. Wu, page 9, Tuttle Publishing; 1st edition (20 June 1998). ISBN 0-8048-3141-6, ISBN 978-0-8048-3141-3.
  50. ^ Ing, Ken (2010). Wing Chun Warrior: The True Tales of Wing Chun Kung Fu Master Duncan Leung, Bruce Lee's Fighting Companion. Blacksmith Books. p. 21. ISBN 9789881774224. Finally, Li Xiaolong (李小龍), known to the world as Bruce Lee, made Wing Chun famous in the 1960s and 1970s through his movies.
  51. ^ Thomas, Bruce (1994). Bruce Lee: Fighting Spirit. Frog Books. p. 308. ISBN 9781883319250. [William Cheung] joined the school and brought along the pupil who was to become wing chun's most famous exponent, Bruce Lee
  52. ^ Rafiq, Fiaz (2020). Bruce Lee: The Life of a Legend. Foreword by Diana Lee Inosanto. Birlinn. ISBN 978-1-78885-330-9.
  53. ^ "詠春體育會 - Ving Tsun Athletic Association". vingtsun.org.hk (in Chinese and English). 2019-11-27.
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  55. ^ "The Development of Ving Tsun Kung Fu in Hong Kong (1961–1970) – 香港詠春體育會發展 (1961–1970)". vingtsun.org.hk (in Chinese and English). 2019-11-27.
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  57. ^ "Rediscovering the Roots of Wing Chun". Kung Fu Magazine. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
  58. ^ McKnight, David; Kwok Chow, Sifu Chung. "Integrative Wing Chun". Kung Fu Magazine. Archived from the original on 2013-03-14. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
  59. ^ Roselando, Jim (2011-01-28). "One Wing Chun Kung Fu Family – W1NG : Coaching From The Ancestors". Archived from the original on 2011-01-28. Retrieved 2019-01-19.
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  61. ^ "Wing Chun Forms".
  62. ^ CHU, Shong Tin; CHAN, Eddie (May 2011). The Book of Wing Chun. The Hong Kong Social Sciences Press. p. 54. ISBN 9780823414741. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  63. ^ "Nim Lik (念力)" is literally translated as "Idea Power" in CHU's 2011 book[62]
  64. ^ a b "SIU NIM TAO: The first form of Wing Chun". 2022-11-10. Retrieved 2022-11-10.
  65. ^ Michel Boulet. "The Simple Basics of a Complex Art". the Wing Chun Archive. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
  66. ^ Jim Fung (2009-02-23). "Wing Chun Stance". International wing Chun academy. Wingchun.com.au. Archived from the original on 2014-03-19. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
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